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The Belarus Constitution

The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus
The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus

The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus forms the basis for the country’s legislative system. It has the supreme legal force, determines the structure of the government, establishes the principles of the electoral system, regulates the formation of government agencies, and sets out the rights and duties of citizens.

The modern Belarus Constitution

The Constitution is the Fundamental Law of the State. The modern Constitution of the Republic of Belarus was adopted on 15 March 1994. It was amended during the national referendums of 24 November 1996, 17 October 2004 and 27 February 2022. This is the fifth Constitution in the history of Belarus (after the October Revolution of 1917).

The Belarus Constitution centres around 3 key elements:

  • the regulation of rights and freedoms
  • the establishment of a new state mechanism
  • the reworking of new laws and a new justice system

Constitution Day of the Republic of Belarus is observed every year on 15 March.

The new Constitution of Belarus came into force on 15 March 2022. It was amended as a result of the national referendum that took place on 27 February 2022. One new chapter and 11 new articles were introduced into the country’s fundamental law, 83 articles were amended and supplemented. The biggest changes were made to the articles related to the system of government, namely the status, formation and powers of the Belarusian People’s Congress that became the supreme representative body of people’s power.

Rights and freedoms of the people of Belarus

The Constitution guarantees Belarusian citizens extensive rights and freedoms. They include:

  • the right to a decent life, including adequate food, clothing, housing and continuous improvement of conditions necessary to achieve this
  • the right to participate in the country’s decision-making process both directly and through elected representatives
  • the right to receive healthcare services, including free medical treatment at the expense of public funds
  • the right to allowances and benefits for the elderly, the sick, the disabled and the unemployable
  • the right to general secondary education and vocational training free of charge

Democracy in Belarus

The Constitution plays a key role in modern Belarus government and democracy.

It guarantees free elections, including national and local elections and referenda.

According to the Constitution of Belarus, the following bodies and individuals are elected on the basis of free, direct votes by secret ballot:

According to the amended Constitution, the Belarusian People’s Congress is the supreme representative body of people’s power that sets out strategic development guidelines for the society and the state, ensures the inviolability of the constitutional order, the continuity of generations and civil accord.

Great Patriotic War monuments in Belarus